Jackie Gulland, Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Social Policy, University of Edinburgh
Poverty and disability are closely linked. Researchers have shown that disabled people are more likely to be out of work, in poorly paid jobs and living in poverty than other groups in society. As a result many disabled people find themselves claiming welfare benefits, including Employment and Support Allowance if they find it difficult to work. My research concerns the history of incapacity benefits, that is, social security benefits for people who are unable to work because of sickness or disability. As I set out to write this post, I wondered what the relevance of this work was for ‘Challenge poverty’ week. After all, ‘challenge poverty’ is about today and anti-poverty campaigners sometimes have an uphill struggle to show that poverty is a problem today, with critics often pointing to the past to show how much worse things used to be. Others in this blog and on the challenge poverty website can explain why poverty is such a problem today.
My task is to show how many of the debates about poverty today are rooted in questions which have been around since the beginning of the welfare state and beyond. To show this, let’s have a look at some quotations about people claiming disability benefits. Can you guess the date?
Guess the date of these quotations
1. “Against the continued advance of a tide of unjustified claims to benefit there are two main lines of defence. The first is the adoption of measures to secure that a proper standard is applied in the issue of medical certificates for incapacity while the second consists in strengthening the safeguards to be adopted by [decision makers] in connection with the supervision of claims”.
2. “A life of idleness is bad for [her], and in our judgment she would have no difficulty in the present state of the domestic labour market, in obtaining suitable remunerative employment which is well within her physical capacity. In her own best interests we strongly recommend the appellant to get work”.
3. “A … person may be regarded as incapable of work because he is unable to travel to work, but it does not follow that because he is unable to travel to his former employment he is entitled to sickness benefit. It is the duty of a .. person to do what is reasonably necessary to regain his position as a wage earner and so overcome the effects of any physical disability which he may be under”.
[answers at the bottom of the page]
Implications for benefits today
These quotations show that policy makers have been worrying about how to define incapacity for work since the very first sickness benefits in 1911. This concern has led to tough and intrusive mechanisms for checking up on people across the 20th century. The continuing theme which we can see in the development of incapacity benefits is one of distrust: that people cannot be trusted to claim benefits honestly and that there must always be mechanisms for checking up on them and keeping them in line. There has also been a continuing argument that ‘work is good for you’ and that people have a duty to get back to work as soon as possible after illness or disability.
Critics of disability benefits policies today argue that access to benefits has become more difficult, first of all by the redefinition of ‘incapacity for work’ brought about by Employment and Support Allowance and, secondly, by the introduction of work requirements for claimants. Both of these changes to benefits policy have made life more difficult for people claiming benefits but the ideas behind them are not new.
The relationship to poverty
So what does this have to do with poverty? It is well established that people with health problems and disabilities find it more difficult to get work, to stay in work and to earn adequate wages and that these difficulties are intensified for people with low educational qualifications. So ‘incapacity for work’ has a direct link with poverty. If the benefits paid to people because they are unable to work (or to find work) are kept deliberately low, poverty becomes even further entrenched. It is even worse for those who are refused benefits when the definition of incapacity for work is tightly drawn. Policy makers claim that they make it difficult to claim benefits and that they keep payments low in order to ‘make work pay’ and to encourage people get back to work. That is all very well when decently paid work is available and the barriers to work are removed. But so long as these barriers exist, people will need adequate benefit payments to keep them out of poverty.
Dates of quotations
- 1931 Ministry of Health circular ‘National Health Insurance control of Expenditure on Sickness and Disablement Benefits’
- 1920 Appeal hearing against a refusal of sickness benefit
- 1917 Annual report of National Health Insurance Committee
Bambra, C. (2011) Work, worklessness and the political economy of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Roulstone, A. and Prideaux, S. (2012) Understanding Disability Policy. Bristol: Policy Press.
More about this research
Dr Jackie Gulland is carrying out research on the history of incapacity benefits across the twentieth century, funded by the Leverhulme Trust. To find out more about this research, go to http://www.blogs.hss.ed.ac.uk/constructingincapacity/